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Painting, faux painting, matching, removing old paint, paint burning, brush painting, roller painting, scaffold building, ladders, strip wood, heat gun, master artistry, chemical stripper, paint brush, latex wood patch, primer, latex-based primer, alkyd-based primer, rollers, fire damage and insurance damage, restoration. Painting Work.

How much paint do you need?
Paint Quantity Estimator
Small Room
Walls 1 Gal.
Trim* 1 Qt.
Doors 1 Qt.
Ceiling 1 Qt.
Medium Room
Walls 2 Gal.
Trim* 1 Gal.
Doors 1 Qt.
Ceiling 1 Gal.
Large Room
Walls 3 Gal.
Trim* 1 Gal.
Doors 1 Qt.
Ceiling 2 Gal.
*Includes baseboard, door trim and window trim.
Paint estimates depend on many factors. The above estimates are based on a one coat application. Depending on the surface and texture, more than one coat may be required.

General Information
         The key to a successful paint job is careful attention to details. You need a stepladder that will be comfortable to paint on. If you're painting large, high surfaces, use a scaffold. You also have to pay attention to safety. Read the labels of all removal chemicals, primers, and paints for use and disposal instructions.

Build a scaffold
          To build a scaffold, you need two quality stepladders and an extension plank. Arrange the stepladders so they face each other with the steps to the inside. Make sure the ladder braces are locked, then run the plank through the steps of the two stepladders. To build a scaffold on a stairway, you only need one stepladder. Run the extension plank through a step of the ladder, and place the other end on a stairway step. Adjust the scaffold so the plank is close to the wall. Make sure the ladder is steady, and check to see that the plank is level before stepping onto the platform.

Open doors and windows and use a fan for ventilation. Use a respirator mask if you can't ventilate the work area. Buy only as much as is needed for the project and store them away from children. Paints come in several sheens. Paint finishes range from flat to high-gloss enamels. Gloss enamels dry to a shiny finish and are used for surfaces that will be washed often, like bathrooms, kitchens, and woodwork. Flat paints have a nongloss finish and are used for most wall and ceiling applications. Check the label to make sure the coverage is about 400 square feet per gallon. Always use a good primer over new surfaces before painting.

Remove old paint
         Removing Old Paint : To strip wood with a heat gun, hold the heat gun near the wood until the paint softens and just begins to blister. Overheating can make the paint gummy, or scorch the wood. Remove the softened paint with a scraper or putty knife. Sand away any remaining paint residue. To strip wood with a chemical stripper, apply a liberal coat of stripper to the surface, using a paintbrush or steel wool. Let it stand until the paint begins to blister. Scrape away the paint with a putty knife, scraper, or steel wool. Rub the stripped wood with denatured alcohol and steel wool to help clean the grain. Then wipe the wood with a wet sponge or cloth dampened with solvent, as directed on the stripper label.

To prepare a wood surface for painting, wash it with a TSP solution, then rinse it clean with a sponge and water. Scrape away any peeling or loose paint. Strip badly chipped woodwork. Use a putty knife to apply latex wood patch or spackle to any nail holes, dents, or other damaged areas. Allow the compound to dry. Sand the surfaces with 150-grit sandpaper until they're smooth to the touch. Wipe the surface with a tack rag before priming and painting. For fast, mess-free painting, shield any surfaces that could get splattered. Remove lightweight furniture and move heavier pieces to the center of the room and cover them with plastic. Cover the floors with 9-ounce canvas drop cloths that will absorb paint splatters. For professional-quality results, sand the surfaces with 150-grit sandpaper and a pad sander. Wipe dust from sanded surfaces with a tack rag. For woodwork, remove the dust with a tack rag, then apply a liquid deglosser with a clean cloth. Vacuum dust from windowsills and window tracks. Before painting, clean the room to eliminate dust that might settle on wet paint. If you're painting woodwork, clean, patch, and strip the wood as needed.
  Apply an alkyd- or latex- based primer to all bare wood and patched areas. Patched areas and wallboard seems that have been treated with patching material or wallboard compound can absorb paint at a different rate than the surrounding areas, and often show or "shadow" through the finished paint. To avoid shadowing, spot-prime these areas with a PVA primer. Seal textured surfaces, like ceilings, with a PVA or alkyd primer. Use a long-nap roller to apply the primer and the finish coat.

Brush painting
         Painting with a brush is a three-step process: The paint is applied, distributed, and then smoothed out. Start by dipping the brush directly into the can, loading one-third of the bristle length. Tap the bristles against the side of the can.
Use the narrow edge of the brush to cut in the edges, pressing just enough to flex the bristles. Brush the wall corners, using the wide edge of the brush. Paint the open areas inside the cut-in edges before the brushed paint dries. Paint large areas with two or three diagonal strokes. Hold the brush at a 45 degree angle, pressing just enough to flex the bristles. Distribute the paint with horizontal strokes. Smooth off the surface by drawing the brush vertically from top to bottom. Use light strokes and lift the brush from the surface at the end of each stroke.

Roller painting
         Painting with a roller is also a three-step process in which the paint is applied, distributed, and smoothed. First, you need to remove lint and open the roller fibers by priming the roller cover with water (when painting with latex) or mineral spirits (when painting with alkyd paint).
 
Squeeze the excess liquid from the roller, then fill the paint tray reservoir with paint. To load the roller, dip it fully into the reservoir. Using a back-and-forth motion, roll the roller over the textured ramp to distribute paint evenly on the nap. The roller should be full, but not dripping. Make an upward diagonal sweep about 4 feet long on the surface. Use slow strokes to avoid splattering. Draw the roller straight down from the top of the diagonal sweep.
     Move the roller to the beginning of the diagonal and roll up to complete the unloading of the roller. Distribute the paint over the section with horizontal back-and-forth strokes. Smooth off the area by lightly drawing the roller vertically from top to bottom. Lift the roller and return it to the top of the area after each stroke.

   
 
Abatement: Involves either removal of the painted surface, covering the painted surface with an impermeable surface, or covering surface with heavy-duty coating (encapsulate).
Abrasion Resistance: Resistance to being worn away by rubbing or friction. Abrasion resistance is a matter of toughness, rather than hardness. It is a necessary quality for floor finishes, enamels and varnishes.
Acrylic: A synthetic resin used in high-performance water-based coatings. A coating in which the binder contains acrylic resins.
Adhesion: The ability of dry paint to attach to and remain fixed on the surface without blistering, flaking, cracking or being removed by tape.
Aerosol: A product that uses compressed gas to spray the coating from its container.
Air Cure: One method by which liquid coatings cure to a dry film. Oxygen from the air enters the film and cross-links the resin molecules. Also called "Air Dry" and "Oxidizing."
Alkyd: Synthetic resin modified with oil. Coating that contains alkyd resins in the binder.
Alligatoring: Paint film cracking that makes the surface look like alligator skin.
Aluminum Paint: A paint that includes aluminum particles and gives a metallic finish when dried
Amide: A functional group which can act as an epoxy resin curing agent.
Anti-fouling Paint: Paints formulated especially for boat decks and hulls, docks and other below-water-line surfaces and structures to prevent the growth of barnacles and other organisms on ships' bottoms.
Binder: Solid ingredients in a coating that hold the pigment particles in suspension and attach them to the substrate. Consists of resins (e.g., oils, alkyd, latex). The nature and amount of binder determine many of the paint's performance properties--washability, toughness, adhesion, color retention, etc.
Blistering: Formation of dome-shaped projections in paints or varnish films resulting from local loss of adhesion and lifting of the film from the underlying surface.
Body: The thickness or viscosity of a fluid.
Boiled Oil: Linseed (sometimes Soya) oil that was formerly heated for faster drying. Today, chemical agents are added to speed up the drying process.
Breathe: Permit the passage of moisture vapor through a paint film without causing blistering, cracking or peeling.
Butadiene: A gas which is chemically combined with styrene to create a resin used in latex binders, styrene-butadiene.
Catalyst: Substance whose presence increases the rate of a chemical reaction, e.g., acid catalyst added to an epoxy resin system to accelerate drying time.
Chalking: Formation of a powder on the surface of a paint film caused by disintegration of the binder during weathering. Can be affected by the choice of pigment or binder.
Clear Coating: A transparent protective and/or decorative film; generally the final coat of sealer applied to automotive finishes.
Coalescent Aid: The small amount of solvent contained in latex coatings. Not a true solvent since it does not actually dissolve the latex resins, the coalescent aid helps the latex resins flow together, aiding in film formation.
Coating: A paint, varnish, lacquer or other finish used to create a protective and/or decorative layer. Generally used to refer to paints and coatings applied in an industrial setting as part of the original equipment manufacturer's (OEM) process.
Cohesion: A bonding together of a single substance to itself. Internal adhesion.
Colorant: Concentrated color (dyes or pigments) that can be added to paints to make specific colors.
Color chip: A color sample usually consisting of a paint applied to a small piece of card (a chip).
Colorfast: Non-fading in prolonged exposure to light.
Color Retention: The ability of paint to keep its original color. Major threats to color retention are exposure to ultraviolet radiation and abrasion by weather or repeated cleaning.
Corrosion Inhibitive: A type of metal paint or primer that prevents rust by preventing moisture from reaching the metal. Zinc phosphate, barium metaborate and strontium chromate (all pigments) are common ingredients in corrosion-inhibitive coatings. These pigments absorb any moisture that enters the paint film.
Creosote: A liquid coating made from coal tar once used as a wood preservative. It has been banned for consumer use because of potential health risks.
Cure, Curing: The process whereby a liquid coating becomes a hard film.
Cutting-in: The brushing technique that is used when a clean, sharp edge is needed. Cutting-in is needed, for example, for a window sash (using a sash brush), the top of a wall where it meets the ceiling, and in areas that are hard to reach (especially when using a roller).
Cut-in trim guide: A tool to protect adjacent surfaces when painting up against them.
Dead Flat: No gloss or sheen.
Diluent: A liquid used in coatings to reduce the consistency and make a coating flow more easily. The water in latex coatings is a diluent. A diluent may also be called a "Reducer," "Thinner," "Reducing Agent" or "Reducing Solvent."
Driers: Various compounds added to coatings to speed the drying.
Dry Colors: Powder-type colors to be mixed with water, alcohol or mineral spirits and resin to form a paint or stain.
Drying Oil: An oil that when exposed to air will dry to a solid through chemical reaction with air: linseed oil, tung oil, perilla, fish oil, soybean oil.
Earth Pigments: Those pigments that are obtained from the earth, including barytes, ocher, chalk and graphite.
Eggshell: Gloss lying between semigloss and flat.
Emulsion: A mixture of solids suspended in a liquid.
Emulsion Paint: Coating in which resins are suspended in water, then flow together with the aid of an emulsifier. Example: latex paint.
Enamel: Broad classification of paints that dry to a hard, usually glossy finish. Most equipment-coating enamels require baking. Enamels for walls do not.
Epoxy: Extremely tough and durable synthetic resin used in some coatings. Epoxy coatings are extremely tough, durable and highly resistant to chemicals, abrasion, moisture and alcohol.
Extender: Ingredients added to paint to increase coverage, reduce cost, achieve durability, alter appearance, control rheology and influence other desirable properties. Less expensive than prime hiding pigments such as titanium dioxide. Examples: barium sulphate, calcium carbonate, clay, gypsum, silica, talc. May also improve coating performance.
Film Build: Amount of thickness produced in an application. Millimeters (mils) of dry film per mils of applied wet film.
Film Thickness: Depth or thickness of the dry coating in millimeters.
Fire Resistance: The ability of a coating to withstand fire or to protect the substrate to which it is applied from fire damage.
Fire Retardant: A coating which will (1) reduce flame spread, (2) resist ignition when exposed to high temperature or (3) insulate the substrate and delay damage to the substrate.
Flat: A surface that scatters or absorbs the light falling on it so as to be substantially free from gloss or sheen (0-15 gloss on a 60-degree gloss meter).
Forced Dry: Baking the paint between room temperature and 150 F to speed the drying process.
Galvanizing: Process in which a thin coating of zinc is applied to iron or steel to prevent rust.
Gloss: The luster or shininess of paints and coatings. Different types of gloss are frequently arbitrarily differentiated, such as sheen, distinctness-of-image gloss, etc. Trade practice recognizes the following gloss levels, in increasing order of gloss: flat (or matte)-- practically free from sheen, even when viewed from oblique angles (usually less than 15 on 60-degree meter); eggshell-- usually 20-35 on 60-degree meter; semi-gloss--usually 35-70 on 60-degree meter; full-gloss--smooth and almost mirror-like surface when viewed from all angles, usually above 70 on 60-degree meter.
Gloss Meter: A device for measuring the light reflectance of coatings. Different brands with the same description (such as semi-gloss or flat) may have quite different ratings on the gloss meter.
Hardener: Curing agent for epoxies or fiberglass.
HEPA Vacuum: High-efficiency particulate air-filtered vacuum designed to remove lead- contaminated dust.
Inert: A material that will not react chemically with other ingredients.
In-place Management: A series of steps used as an alternative to lead-based paint removal. Improves condition of intact lead-based paint to reduce and/or eliminate hazards without total removal.
Intumescence: A mechanism whereby fire-retardant paints protect the substrates to which they are applied. An intumescent paint puffs up when exposed to high temperatures, forming an insulating, protective layer over the substrate.
Lacquer: A fast-drying usually clear coating that is highly flammable and dries by solvent evaporation only. Can be reconstituted after drying by adding solvent.
Latex-based Paint: General term used for water-based emulsion paints made with synthetic binders such as 100% acrylic, vinyl acrylic, terpolymer or styrene acrylic. A stable emulsion of polymers and pigment in water.
Lead: A metal, previously used as a pigment in paints. Discontinued in the early 1950s by industry consensus standard, and banned by the Consumer Products Safety Commission in 1978 because of its toxicity.
Linseed Oil: Drying oil made from the flax seed. Used as a solvent in many oil- based paints. "Boiled" linseed oil can be used to protect wood from water damage. Sometimes used as a furniture polish.
Liquid Driers: Solution of soluble driers in organic solvents.
Lithopone: A white pigment of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide.
Marine Paint: Coating specially designed for immersion in water and exposure to marine atmosphere. (See also Anti-fouling Paint)
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): Information sheet that lists any hazardous substance that comprises one percent or more of the product's total volume. Also lists procedures to follow in the event of fire, explosion, leak or exposure to hazardous substance by inhalation, ingestion or contact with skin or eyes. Coatings manufacturers are required to provide retailers with an MSDS for every product they sell to the retailer. Sales clerks should make MSDSs available to retail customers.
Mineral Spirits: Paint thinner. Solvent distilled from petroleum.
Monomer: Substance composed of low molecular weight molecules capable of reacting with like or unlike molecules to form a polymer.
Naphtha: A petroleum distillate used mostly by professionals (as opposed to do-it- yourself painters) for cleanup and to thin solvent-based coatings. A volatile organic compound (see VOC).
Natural Resins: Resins from trees, plants, fish and insects. Examples: damars, copals.
Nonvolatile: The portion of a coating left after the solvent evaporates; sometimes called the solids content.
Oil Paint: A paint that contains drying oil, oil varnish or oil-modified resin as the film-forming ingredient. The term is commonly and incorrectly used to refer to any paint soluble by organic solvents.
Oleoresin: A natural plant product that contains oil and resins. Turpentine is an example.
Oxidation: Chemical reaction upon exposure to oxygen. Some coatings cure by oxidation, when oxygen enters the liquid coating and cross-links the resin molecules. This film-forming method is also called "Air Cure" and "Air Dry." (Oxidation also causes rust on bare metals.)
Paint: A coating including resin, a solvent, additives, pigments and, in some products, a diluent. Paints are generally opaque, and commonly represent the portion of the industry known as "architectural coatings."
Paint Remover: A chemical that softens old paint or varnish and permits it to be easily scraped off. Also called "stripper."
Paint Thinner: See Mineral Spirits
Penetrating Finish: A finish that sinks into the substrate, as opposed to settling on the surface.
Pigment: Insoluble, finely ground materials that give paint its properties of color and hide. Titanium dioxide is the most important pigment used to provide hiding in paint. Other pigments include anatase titanium, barium metaborate, barium sulphate, burnt sienna, burnt umber, carbon black, China clay, chromium oxide, iron oxide, lead carbonate, strontium chromate, Tuscan red, zinc oxide, zinc phosphate and zinc sulfide.
Polymer: Substance, the molecules of which consist of one or more structural units repeated any number of times; vinyl resins are examples of true polymers.
Polymerization: The interlocking of molecules by chemical reaction to produce very large molecules. The process of making plastics and plastic-based resins.
Polyvinyl Chloride: A synthetic resin used in the binders of coatings. Tends to discolor under exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Commonly called "vinyl."
Primer: First complete coat of paint of a painting system applied to a surface. Such paints are designed to provide adequate adhesion to new surfaces or are formulated to meet the special requirements of the surfaces.
Propellant: The gas used to expel materials from aerosol containers.
Resin: Synthetic or natural material used as the binder in coatings. Can be translucent or transparent, solid or semi-solid. Examples: acrylic, alkyd, copal ester, epoxy, polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride, silicone.
Rosin: Natural resin obtained from living pine trees or from dead tree stumps and knots.
Semi-gloss Finish: Finish that has a low luster sheen. Semi-gloss paints are formulated to give this result (usually 35-70 degrees on a 60-degree meter).
Shellac: A coating made from purified lac dissolved in alcohol, often bleached white.
Silicone: A resin used in the binders of coatings. Also used as an additive to provide specific properties, e.g., defoamer. Paints containing silicone are very slick and resist dirt, graffiti and bacterial growth, and are stable in high heat.
Solids: The part of the coating that remains on a surface after the vehicle has evaporated. The dried paint film. Also called Nonvolatile.
Solvent: Any liquid which can dissolve a resin. Generally refers to the liquid portion of paints and coatings that evaporates as the coating dries.
Source Reduction: Steps taken to reduce waste generation and toxicity at the source through more effective utilization of raw materials and reformulation.
Specular Gloss: Mirror-like finish (usually 60 degrees on a 60-degree meter).
Substrate: Any surface to which a coating is applied.
Titanium Dioxide: White pigment in virtually all white paints. Prime hiding pigment in most paints.
Turpentine: Distilled pine oil, used as a cleaner, solvent or thinner for oil-based and alkyd coatings.
Urethane: An important resin in the coatings industry. A true urethane coating is a two-component product that cures when an isocyanate (the catalyst) prompts a chemical reaction that unites the components.
Vehicle: Portion of a coating that includes all liquids and the binder. The vehicle and the pigment are the two basic components of paint.
Vinyl: See Polyvinyl Chloride
Viscosity: The property of a fluid whereby it tends to resist relative motion within itself.
Volatility: The defining quality of a liquid that evaporates quickly when exposed to air.
Volatile Organic Compound, (VOC): Organic chemicals and petrochemicals that emit vapors while evaporating. In paints, VOC generally refers to the solvent portion of the paint which, when it evaporates, results in the formation of paint film on the substrate to which it was applied.
Volume Solids: Solid ingredients as a percentage of total ingredients. The volume of pigment plus binder divided by the total volume, expressed as a percent. High-volume solids mean a thicker dry film with improved durability.
Water-based: Coatings in which the majority of the liquid content is water.
White Lead: Lead carbonate
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